Knowledge Base

ISO image file:

ISO Image file is a single large file that is a representation of the whole set of data and programs as it will appear on a disc. It contains the complete image of a disc. A disc image refers to both content and logical format. It can be useful to:

  1. Replicate your CD/DVD further, using CD/DVD mastering programs such as Adaptec Easy CD Creator, Nero Burning ROM, Record Now Max etc.
  2. Write the disc image to hard drive once, and then record it several times to different CD/DVDs to save processing time.
  3. Create a disc image file to be written to CD/DVD on another system (UNIX, Macintosh).
  4. Backup CD/DVD data.
  5. Use for a virtual CD/DVD drive. You can mount an ISO image file to a virtual drive.
  6. Used to transfer CD/DVD images over the Internet.

DVD Copyright:

It is against the law to reproduce copyrighted material for the purpose of selling it to third parties. Some countries' laws only allow you to make one backup copy of any software or media for personal and archival purposes, which is the only intended use for CloneDVD. This program is not meant for those who intend on breaking copyright laws. In no way will we be held responsible if you do. Any other illegal use of this software is strictly prohibited.


Content Scramble System, is a data encryption and authentication scheme intended to prevent copying video files directly from DVD-Video discs.

Region codes:

Motion picture studios want to control the home release of movies in different countries because theater releases aren't simultaneous. Also, studios sell distribution rights to different foreign distributors and would like to guarantee an exclusive market. Therefore they required that the DVD standard include codes to prevent playback of certain discs in certain geographical regions. Each player is given a code for the region in which it's sold. The player will refuse to play discs that are not coded for its region. This means that a disc bought in one country may not play on a player bought in another country. However, discs without region locks will play on any player in any country.

Region Coding divides the world into 8 regions:
Region 1: U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories
Region 2: Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Middle East (including Egypt)
Region 3: Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong)
Region 4: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean
Region 5: Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia
Region 6: China
Region 7: Reserved
Region 8: Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.)

If a DVD is listed as 'Region 0' it means that it isn't coded for any region and could be played on ALL regions players.


An analog video copy protection scheme that alters the unseen part of a video signal such that a VCR or other Macrovision enabled device may not record the video signal properly. Symptoms of this include picture fading in and out or color banding of the signal.


Watermarking is not an encryption system, but rather a way to identify whether a copy of a piece of video or audio is allowed to be played.

DVD-5 and DVD-9:

Most DVD is DVD-9 or DVD-5 format:

DVD-5, single-sided/single-layer disc, 4.7GB of data, over 2 hours of video

DVD-9, single-sided/dual-layer disc, 8.5GB of data, about 4 hours of video

Audio Video Interleaved - A multimedia file format for storing sound and moving pictures in RIFF format developed by Microsoft. An AVI file can use different codecs and formats so there is no set format for an AVI file unlike for example standard VCD video which sets a standard for resolution, bitrates, and codecs used.

The Advanced Systems Format (ASF) is the file format used by Windows Media. ASF is an extensible file format designed to store synchronized multimedia data. It supports data delivery over a wide variety of networks and protocols while still proving suitable for local playback.

Latest compression method standardized by MPEG group, designed specially for low-bandwidth (less than 1.5MBit/sec bitrate) video/audio encoding purposes. One of the best-known MPEG-4 encoders is DivX which since version 5 has been fully standard-compliant MPEG-4 encoder.

PSP stands for Sony's handheld gaming console, Playstation Portable .

3GP is a MPEG-4 video format used mostly in mobile phones.